【Git爬坡】后悔药之版本回退

发布 : 2019-05-26 分类 : 技术 浏览 :

从小我们就知道,如果做了错事儿是没有后悔药吃的,只能承担相应的责任。但是在代码的世界里,这种不可能将变为可能,也就是说,当你在Git中误操作时,Git将为你提供”后悔药“。

首先查看readme.md文件原始内容

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ cat readme.md
Hello world!
Git is a very important Code Management System!

修改该文件,添加一个单词very

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ vi readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ cat readme.md
Hello world!
Git is a very very important Code Management System!

将修改提交到暂存区

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git status
On branch master
Changes not staged for commit:
(use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
(use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)

modified: readme.md

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git add readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git status
On branch master
Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

modified: readme.md

将暂存区全部提交到本地Git仓库

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git commit -m "update readme.md add very"
[master b98de68] update readme.md add very
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

这时候突然发现,不应该这么更改,但是已经将修改提交到本地仓库了,怎么办?
使用git log查看当前版本库的操作记录,可以看到列出了两条commit记录,第一条为HEAD-master,即当前版本在master分支上。

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git log
commit b98de68ec923f7521535a9b36ffc1f62e6c38a77 (HEAD -> master)
Author: Chen <admin@chenzhihao.cc>
Date: Mon Dec 11 16:12:03 2017 +0800

update readme.md add very

commit 3a2897a6fcd90a32249d706a04d67b3f8c7cff45
Author: Chen <admin@chenzhihao.cc>
Date: Mon Dec 11 08:26:30 2017 +0800

create file readme.md

接下来就可以使用git reset命令将当前版本恢复到其他版本,这里可以直接使用版本号,来选择会退到哪一个版本

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git reset --hard 3a2897a6fcd90a32249d706a04d67b3f8c7cff45
HEAD is now at 3a2897a create file readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git log
commit 3a2897a6fcd90a32249d706a04d67b3f8c7cff45 (HEAD -> master)
Author: Chen <admin@chenzhihao.cc>
Date: Mon Dec 11 08:26:30 2017 +0800

create file readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ cat readme.md
Hello world!
Git is a very important Code Management System!

或者使用head^恢复前一个版本,head^^恢复前两个版本,当然只要你愿意写,可以写100个^,恢复到前一百个版本,因为实在太长,可以使用head~100

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HEAD is now at 3a2897a create file readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git log
commit 3a2897a6fcd90a32249d706a04d67b3f8c7cff45 (HEAD -> master)
Author: Chen <admin@chenzhihao.cc>
Date: Mon Dec 11 08:26:30 2017 +0800

create file readme.md

但是可以使用git reflog查看历史操作,根据操作日志进行恢复

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chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git reflog
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{0}: reset: moving to 3a2897a6fcd90a32249d706a04d67b3f8c7cff45
b98de68 HEAD@{1}: commit: update readme.md add very
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{2}: reset: moving to 3a2897a
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{3}: reset: moving to 3a2897a6fcd
2b9f78a HEAD@{4}: reset: moving to 2b9f78a903ac2cf91b7b30712dbabd264a834701
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{5}: reset: moving to 3a2897a6fcd
2b9f78a HEAD@{6}: reset: moving to 2b9f78a903ac2cf91b7b30712dbabd264a834701
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{7}: reset: moving to head^
2b9f78a HEAD@{8}: commit: update readme.md add very
3a2897a (HEAD -> master) HEAD@{9}: commit (initial): create file readme.md
chenzhihao-mac:gitlearning chenzhihao$ git reset --hard b98de68
HEAD is now at b98de68 update readme.md add very

总结

  • git status 查看当前暂存区状态
  • git reset 将工作区恢复到某一个版本
  • git log 查看版本记录
  • git reflog 查看历史操作记录
本文作者 : 陈志昊
原文链接 : https://blog.chenzhihao.cc/2019/05/26/【Git爬坡】后悔药之版本回退/
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